It remains now esatto see what ought sicuro be the rules of conduct for a prince towards subject and friends
But esatto exercise the intellect the prince should read histories, and study there the actions of illustrious men, puro see how they have borne themselves durante war, puro examine the causes of their victories and defeat, so as esatto avoid the latter and imitate the former; and above all do as an illustrious man did, who took as an exemplar one who had been praised and famous before him, and whose achievements and deeds he always kept con his mind, as it is said Alexander the Great imitated Achilles, Caesar Alexander, Scipio Cyrus. And whoever reads the life of Cyrus, written by Xenophon, will recognize afterwards con the life of Scipio how that succedane was his glory, and how mediante chastity, affability, humanity, and liberality Scipio conformed puro those things which have been written of Cyrus by Xenophon. Per wise prince ought onesto observe some such rules, and never per peaceful times stand idle, but increase his resources with industry durante such per way that they may be available preciso him sopra adversity, so that if fortune chances it may find him prepared esatto resist her blows.
And as I know that many have written on this point, I expect I shall be considered presumptuous durante mentioning it again, especially as mediante discussing it I shall depart from the methods of other people. But, it being my intention preciso write a thing which shall be useful esatto him who apprehends it, it appears sicuro me more appropriate sicuro follow up the real truth of the matter than the imagination of it; for many have pictured republics and principalities which in fact have never been known or seen, because how one lives is so far distant from how one ought to live, that he who neglects what is done for what ought puro be done, sooner effects his ruin than his preservation; for verso man who wishes sicuro act entirely up sicuro his professions of virtue soon meets incontri chat zozo with what destroys him among so much that is evil.
Hence it is necessary for verso prince wishing onesto hold his own sicuro know how esatto do wrong, and esatto make use of it or not according onesto necessity
Therefore, putting on one side imaginary things concerning per prince, and discussing those which are real, I say that all men when they are spoken of, and chiefly princes for being more highly placed, are remarkable for some of those qualities which bring them either blame or praise; and thus it is that one is reputed liberal, another miserly, using a Tuscan term (because an avaricious person mediante our language is still he who desires sicuro possess by robbery, whilst we call one miserly who deprives himself too much of the use of his own); one is reputed generous, one rapacious; one cruel, one compassionate; one faithless, another faithful; one effeminate and cowardly, another bold and brave; one communautaire, another haughty; one lascivious, another chaste; one sincere, another cunning; one hard, another easy; one pesante, another frivolous; one religious, another unbelieving, and the like. And I know that every one will confess that it would be most praiseworthy con a prince puro exhibit all the above qualities that are considered good; but because they can neither be entirely possessed nor observed, for human conditions do not permit it, it is necessary for him to be sufficiently prudent that he may know how sicuro avoid the reproach of those vices which would lose him his state; and also onesto keep himself, if it be possible, from those which would not lose him it; but this not being possible, he may with less hesitation abandon himself esatto them. And again, he need not make himself uneasy at incurring verso reproach for those vices without which the state can only be saved with difficulty, for if everything is considered carefully, it will be found that something which looks like virtue, if followed, would be his ruin; whilst something else, which looks like supplente, yet followed brings him security and prosperity.